云南二十选八走势图

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云南二十选八走势图> 高一>

高一化学反应速率知识点总结

2017-06-03 11:10

LAIYUAN:DAISHIZHONGKAOGAOKAOXUEXIAO

HUAXUEFANYINGSULV

1.化学反应速率

(1)化学反应速率的概念

HUAXUEFANYINGSULVSHIYONGLAIHENGLIANGHUAXUEFANYINGJINXINGDEKUAIMANCHENGDUDEWULILIANG。

(2)化学反应速率的表示方法

DUIYUFANYINGTIXITIJIBUBIANDEHUAXUEFANYING,TONGCHANGYONGDANWEISHIJIANNEIFANYINGWUHUOSHENGCHENGWUDEWUZHIDELIANGNONGDUDEBIANHUAZHIBIAOSHI。

云南二十选八走势图MOUYIWUZHIADEHUAXUEFANYINGSULVDEBIAODASHIWEI:

云南二十选八走势图SHIZHONGMOUWUZHIADENONGDUBIANHUA,CHANGYONGDANWEIWEImol·L-1。MOUDUANSHIJIANJIANGE,CHANGYONGDANWEIWEIs,min,h。υWEIWUZHIADEFANYINGSULV,CHANGYONGDANWEISHImol·L-1·s-1,mol·L-1·s-1DENG。

(3)化学反应速率的计算规律

①TONGYIFANYINGZHONGBUTONGWUZHIDEHUAXUEFANYINGSULVJIANDEGUANXI

TONGYISHIJIANNEI,YONGBUTONGDEWUZHIBIAOSHIDETONGYIFANYINGDEFANYINGSULVSHUZHIZHIBIDENGYUHUAXUEFANGCHENGSHIZHONGGEWUZHIDEHUAXUEJILIANGSHUZHIBI。

云南二十选八走势图②HUAXUEFANYINGSULVDEJISUANGUILV

云南二十选八走势图TONGYIHUAXUEFANYING,YONGBUTONGWUZHIDENONGDUBIANHUABIAOSHIDEHUAXUEFANYINGSULVZHIBIDENGYUFANYINGFANGCHENGSHIZHONGXIANGYINGDEWUZHIDEHUAXUEJILIANGSHUZHIBI,ZHEISHIYOUGUANHUAXUEFANYINGSULVDEJISUANHUOHUANSUANDEYIJU。

(4)化学反应速率的特点

①FANYINGSULVBUQUFUZHI,YONGRENHEYIZHONGWUZHIDEBIANHUALAIBIAOSHIFANYINGSULVDOUBUQUFUZHI。

云南二十选八走势图②TONGYIHUAXUEFANYINGXUANYONGBUTONGWUZHIBIAOSHIFANYINGSULVSHI,KENENGYOUBUTONGDESULVSHUZHI,DANSULVZHIBIDENGYUHUAXUEFANGCHENGSHIZHONGGEWUZHIDEHUAXUEJILIANGSHUZHIBI。

云南二十选八走势图③HUAXUEFANYINGSULVSHIZHISHIJIANNEIDE“PINGJUN”FANYINGSULV。


XIAOTIESHI:

①HUAXUEFANYINGSULVTONGCHANGZHIDESHIMOUWUZHIZAIMOUYIDUANSHIJIANNEIHUAXUEFANYINGDEPINGJUNSULV,ERBUSHIZAIMOUYISHIKEDESHUNSHISULV。

②YOUYUZAIFANYINGZHONGCHUNGUTIHECHUNYETIDENONGDUSHIHENGDINGBUBIANDE,YINCIDUIYUYOUCHUNYETIHUOCHUNGUTICANJIADEFANYINGYIBANBUYONGCHUNYETIHUOCHUNGUTILAIBIAOSHIHUAXUEFANYINGSULV。QIHUAXUEFANYINGSULVYUQIBIAOMIANJIDAXIAOYOUGUAN,ERYUQIWUZHIDELIANGDEDUOSHAOWUGUAN。TONGCHANGSHITONGGUOZENGDAGAIWUZHIDEBIAOMIANJI(RUFENSUICHENGXIXIAOKELI、 CHONGFENJIAOBAN、 ZHENDANGDENG)LAIJIAKUAIFANYINGSULV。

云南二十选八走势图③DUIYUTONGYIHUAXUEFANYING,ZAIXIANGTONGDEFANYINGSHIJIANNEI,YONGBUTONGDEWUZHILAIBIAOSHIQIFANYINGSULV,QISHUZHIKENENGBUTONG,DANZHEIXIEBUTONGDESHUZHIBIAOSHIDEDOUSHITONGYIGEFANYINGDESULV。YINCI,BIAOSHIHUAXUEFANYINGDESULVSHI,BIXUZHIMINGSHIYONGFANYINGTIXIZHONGDENAZHONGWUZHIZUOBIAOZHUN。

2.化学反应速率的测量

(1)基本思路

云南二十选八走势图HUAXUEFANYINGSULVSHITONGGUOSHIYANCEDINGDE。YINWEIHUAXUEFANYINGZHONGFASHENGBIANHUADESHITIXIZHONGDEHUAXUEWUZHI(BAOKUOFANYINGWUHESHENGCHENGWU),SUOYIYUQIZHONGRENHEYIZHONGHUAXUEWUZHIDENONGDU(HUOZHILIANG)XIANGGUANDEXINGZHIZAICELIANGFANYINGSULVSHIDOUKEYIJIAYILIYONG。

(2)测定方法

云南二十选八走势图①ZHIJIEKEGUANCHADEXINGZHI,RUSHIFANGCHUQITIDETIJIHETIXIDEYAQIANG。

②YIKAOKEXUEYIQICAINENGCELIANGDEXINGZHI,RUYANSEDESHENQIAN、GUANGDEXISHOU、GUANGDEFASHE、DAODIANNENGLIDENG。

云南二十选八走势图③ZAIRONGYEZHONG,DANGFANYINGWUHUOCHANWUBENSHENYOUBIJIAOMINGXIANDEYANSESHI,CHANGCHANGLIYONGYANSESHENQIANHEXIANSEWUZHINONGDUJIANDEZHENGBIGUANXILAIGENZONGFANYINGDEGUOCHENGHECELIANGFANYINGSULV。

3.png

ZHUNQUEBIAODAHUAXUEFANYINGJINXINGDEKUAIMAN,JIUBIXUJIANLIYITAOFANGFA:QUEDINGQIDIAN,QUEDINGFANYINGSHIJIANDEDANWEI,ZHAODAOYIYUCELIANGDEMOUZHONGLIANGHUOXINGZHIDEBIANHUA。

YINGXIANGHUAXUEFANYINGSULVDEYINSU

1.发生化学反应的前提——有效碰撞理论

(1)YOUXIAOPENGZHUANG:NENGGOUFASHENGHUAXUEFANYINGDEPENGZHUANG。

云南二十选八走势图HUAXUEFANYINGFASHENGDEXIANJUETIAOJIANSHIFANYINGWUFENZIZHIJIANBIXUFASHENGPENGZHUANG。

FANYINGWUFENZIZHIJIANDEPENGZHUANGZHIYOUSHAOSHUPENGZHUANGNENGDAOZHIHUAXUEFANYINGDEFASHENG,DUOSHUPENGZHUANGBINGBUNENGDAOZHIFANYINGDEFASHENG,SHIWUXIAOPENGZHUANG。PENGZHUANGDEPINLVYUEGAO,ZEHUAXUEFANYINGSULVJIUYUEDA。

(2)HUOHUANENGHEHUOHUAFENZI

①HUOHUAFENZI:ZAIHUAXUEFANYINGZHONG,NENGLIANGJIAOGAO,YOUKENENGFASHENGYOUXIAOPENGZHUANGDEFENZI。

云南二十选八走势图HUOHUAFENZIZHIJIANZHISUOYINENGGOUFASHENGYOUXIAOPENGZHUANG,SHIYOUYUTAMENDENENGLIANGGAO,FASHENGPENGZHUANGSHI,NENGGOUKEFUXIANGZHUANGFENZIZHIJIANDEPAICHILI,POHUAIFENZINEIBUYUANZIZHIJIANDE“JIEHELI” ,CONGERDAOZHIFANYINGWUFENZIPOHUAI,ZHONGXINZUHECHENGSHENGCHENGWUFENZI,FASHENGHUAXUEFANYING。

②HUOHUANENG:HUOHUAFENZISUODUOCHUDENEIBUFENNENGLIANG(HUOPUTONGFENZIZHUANHUACHENGHUOHUAFENZISUOXUDEZUIDINENGLIANG)。

③HUOHUANENGYUHUAXUEFANYINGSULV:HUOHUAFENZISHUMUDEDUOSHAOJUEDINGLEYOUXIAOPENGZHUANGFASHENGDECISHU。ZAIFENZISHUQUEDINGSHI,HUOHUAFENZIBAIFENSHUZENGDA,YOUXIAOPENGZHUANGDECISHUZENGDUO,FANYINGSULVJIAKUAI。

2.决定化学反应速率的内部因素

云南二十选八走势图BUTONGDEHUAXUEFANYINGJUYOUBUTONGDEFANYINGSULV,YINGXIANGFANYINGSULVDEZHUYAOYINSUSHINEIYIN,JICANJIAFANYINGDEWUZHIBENSHENDEXINGZHI。

NEIYIN:CANJIAFANYINGDEWUZHIDEXINGZHIHEFANYINGDELICHENG,SHIJUEDINGHUAXUEFANYINGSULVDEZHUYAOYINSU。

3.影响化学反应速率的外部因素

云南二十选八走势图DANGWUZHIQUEDINGSHI (JINEIYINGUDING),ZAITONGYIFANYINGZHONG,YINGXIANGFANYINGSULVDEYINSUSHIWAIYIN,JIWAIJIETIAOJIAN,ZHUYAOYOUWENDU、NONGDU、YAQIANG、CUIHUAJIDENG。

(1)浓度对化学反应速率的影响

①GUILV:QITATIAOJIANBUBIANSHI,ZENGDAFANYINGWUDENONGDU,KEYIJIAKUAIFANYINGSULV;JIANXIAOFANYINGWUDENONGDU,KEYIJIANMANHUAXUEFANYINGDESULV。

②LILUNJIESHI:ZAIQITATIAOJIANBUBIANSHI,DUIMOUYIFANYINGLAISHUO,HUOHUAFENZIBAIFENSHUSHIYIDINGDE,JIDANWEITIJINEIDEHUOHUAFENZISHUYUFANYINGWUDENONGDUCHENGZHENGBI。

(2)压强对反应速率的影响

①YINGXIANGDUIXIANG: YAQIANGZHIYINGXIANGYOUQITICANYUDEFANYINGDEFANYINGSULVDUIYUMEIYOUQITICANYUDEFANYING,YAQIANGDUITADEFANYINGSULVMEIYOURENHEYINGXIANG。

云南二十选八走势图ZHU:YAQIANGYINGXIANG,ZHISHIYONGYUTAOLUNYOUQITICANJIADEFANYING,DANGRANBINGBUYIDINGCANJIAFANYINGDEWUZHIQUANBUSHIQITI,ZHIYAOYOUQITICANYU,YAQIANGJIHUIYINGXIANGFANYINGDEFANYINGSULV。

云南二十选八走势图②GUILV:DUIYUYOUQITICANJIADEFANYING,RUOQITATIAOJIANBUBIAN,ZENGDAYAQIANG,FANYINGSULVJIAKUAI;JIANXIAOYAQIANG,FANYINGSULVJIANMAN。

③LILUNJIESHI:DUIQITILAISHUO,RUOQITATIAOJIANBUBIAN,ZENGDAYAQIANG,SHIZENGDALENONGDUDANWEITIJINEIHUOHUAFENZISHUZENGDUO YOUXIAOPENGZHUANGCISHUZENGDUO HUAXUEFANYINGSULVZENGDA。YINCI,ZENGDAYAQIANG,KEYIZENGDAHUAXUEFANYINGSULV。

(3)温度对反应速率的影响

云南二十选八走势图①GUILV:QITATIAOJIANBUBIANSHI,SHENGGAOWENDU,KEYIZENGDAFANYINGSULV,JIANGDIWENDU,KEYIJIANMANFANYINGSULV。

云南二十选八走势图②LILUNJIESHI:WENDUSHIFENZIPINGJUNDONGNENGDEFANYING,WENDUSHENGGAO,SHIDEZHENGGETIXIZHONGFENZIDENENGLIANGSHENGGAO,FENZIYUNDONGSULVJIAKUAI。

(4)催化剂对反应速率的影响

①GUILV:CUIHUAJIKEYIGAIBIANHUAXUEFANYINGDESULV。ZAIBUJIASHUOMINGSHI,CUIHUAJIYIBANZHISHIFANYINGSULVJIAKUAIDEZHENGCUIHUAJI。

云南二十选八走势图②CUIHUAJIYINGXIANGHUAXUEFANYINGSULVDEYUANYIN:ZAIQITATIAOJIANBUBIANSHI, SHIYONGCUIHUAJIKEYIDADAJIANGDIFANYINGSUOXUYAODENENGLIANG,HUISHIGENGDUODEFANYINGWUFENZICHENGWEIHUOHUAFENZI,DADAZENGJIAHUOHUAFENZIBAIFENSHU,YINERSHIFANYINGSULVJIAKUAI。TONGYICUIHUAJINENGTONGDENGCHENGDUDIGAIBIANZHENG、NIFANYINGDESULV。

4.png

FANYINGWUDEXINGZHISHIYINGXIANGFANYINGSULVDENEIZAIYINSU。WAIJIEYINSUDUIFANYINGSULVDEYINGXIANGYONGYOUXIAOPENGZHUANGLILUNJIESHI。


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